The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace. The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. Related decarburizing with air processes had been used outside Europe for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial scale. The modern process is named after its inventor, the Englishman Henry Bessemer , who took out a patent on the process in The process using a basic refractory lining is known as the “basic Bessemer process” or Gilchrist—Thomas process after the English discoverers Percy Gilchrist and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas. A system akin to the Bessemer process has existed since the 11th century in East Asia. Wertime have described the method as a predecessor to the Bessemer process of making steel. In the 15th century the finery process , another process which shares the air-blowing principle with the Bessemer process, was developed in Europe. In Benjamin Huntsman developed the crucible technique for steel manufacture, at his workshop in the district of Handsworth in Sheffield.
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The first factory trials for the production of Bessemer steel in Russia date to the late ‘s (the Ural plants at Kushva, Nizhnee Isetskoe, Sysert’, Vsevolodo-Vil’va.
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The process was proposed by Henry Bessemer in in connection with the growing demands for steel created by increased construction of railroads, ships, and machines; for its time it was a progressive method of obtaining cast steel. In organizing the Bessemer process on an industrial scale, Russian metallurgists D.
Chernov at the Obukhov plant in and, almost simultaneously, K. Polenov at the Nizhniaia Salda plant followed independent paths and developed a particular method of transforming low-silicon pig irons in a Bessemer converter which came to be called the Russian Bessemer process.
The Bessemer process made possible the manufacture of large while steel tools and parts helped make possible high-speed lathes. Also.
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In , Henry Bessemer developed a new method for manufacturing steel. The Bessemer process made possible the manufacture of large amounts of high-quality steel for the first time. This, in turn, provided steel at relatively low cost to various industries. By revolutionizing the steel industry , the Bessemer process helped to spur on the Industrial Revolution.
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To enable others skilled in the art to more fully understand and constructanduse my’ Sheet A, is a longitudinal section of the tuyerebox J and converting-vessel G partially turned down, andan elevation ofthe ladle A and ladlecranel B for receiving the fluid’ metal from the converting-vessel and conveying it to the molds. The converting-vessel G is turned bottom upward and the cover ot’ the tuyerebox J is removed. The converting-vessel I at ‘present preferis made of stout plate-iron lined with a silicious stone called genieten7 or with any suitable refractory material.
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